Database Management Basics

Database management is the method for managing data that supports the company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and application programs and modifying it as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failures. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure which aids in decision making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed huge amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a collection of tables which organize data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a variety of fields, referred to as attributes, that contain information about the entities that comprise the data. The most well-known type of database today is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it easier to update data since it eliminates the need to change many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational issues such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a mix of external views based on different models of data and could include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to improve the performance.

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